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test 5

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

test 5

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

test 4

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

test 3

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

test numéro 2

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

test finale

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Energie propre

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Une éolienne est un dispositif qui transforme l’énergie cinétique du vent en énergie mécanique. Le plus souvent cette énergie est elle-même transformée en énergie électrique. Les éoliennes produisant de l’électricité sont appelées aérogénérateurs, tandis que les éoliennes qui pompent directement de l’eau sont parfois dénommées éoliennes de pompage, dont un type particulier est l’éolienne Bollée. Ernest Sylvain Bollée a utilisé ce mot « éolienne » pour la première fois (1885) comme nom commun et non plus comme un adjectif (énergie éolienne). Le mot se retrouve dans le Larousse quelques années plus tard en 1907.

Les termes de parc éolien ou de ferme éolienne sont utilisés pour décrire les unités de production groupées (installées à terre ou en mer).

Les États dans le monde où les champs éoliens sont les plus nombreux sont la Chine, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, les États-Unis et le Danemark.

En France, les centrales éoliennes de production d’électricité sont en pleine expansion sur une grande partie du territoire. L’Aude, la Bretagne et la Champagne-Ardenne1 sont des zones géographiques pionnières en la matière.

Chorus Of Canada

Orchestra

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ορχήστρα, the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus. The orchestra grew by accretion throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, but changed very little in composition during the course of the 20th century.

3721453809_f4b056913f_oA smaller-sized orchestra for this time period (of about fifty musicians or fewer) is called a chamber orchestra. A full-size orchestra (about 100 musicians) may sometimes be called a « symphony orchestra » or « philharmonic orchestra« ; these modifiers do not necessarily indicate any strict difference in either the instrumental constitution or role of the orchestra, but can be useful to distinguish different ensembles based in the same city (for instance, the London Symphony Orchestra and theLondon Philharmonic Orchestra). A symphony orchestra will usually have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. A leading chamber orchestra might employ as many as fifty musicians; some are much smaller than that. Orchestras can also be found in schools. The term concert orchestra may sometimes be used (e.g., BBC Concert Orchestra; RTÉ Concert Orchestra)—no distinction is made on size of orchestra by use of this term, although their use is generally distinguished as for live concert. As such they are commonly chamber orchestras.

The typical symphony orchestra consists of four proportionate groups of similar musical instruments called the woodwinds,brass, percussion, and strings. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments. The orchestra, depending on the size, contains almost all of the standard instruments in each group. In the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has been expanded over time, often agreed to have been standardized by the classical period and Beethoven’s influence on the classical model.

Beethoven’s influence

The so-called « standard complement » of double winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is generally attributed to the forces called for by Ludwig van Beethoven. The exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, and Piano Concerto No. 4, which each specify a single flute. The composer’s instrumentation almost always included paired flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns and trumpets. Beethoven carefully calculated the expansion of this particular timbral « palette » in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, and 9 for an innovative effect. The third horn in the « Eroica » Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but also the effect of « choral » brass in the Trio. Piccolo, contrabassoon, and trombones add to the triumphal finale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver storm and sunshine in the Sixth. The Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the « Eroica » (four horns has since become standard); Beethoven’s use of piccolo, contrabassoon, trombones, and untuned percussion—plus chorus and vocal soloists—in his finale, are his earliest suggestion that the timbral boundaries of « symphony » might be expanded for good. But for several decades after his departure, symphonic instrumentation was faithful to Beethoven’s well-established model, with few exceptions.

Cinematography Toronto

Cinematography

Cinematography is an art form of filmmaking. Although the exposing of images on light-sensitive elements dates back to the early 19th century,motion pictures demanded a new form of photography and new aesthetic techniques.

On June 19, 1872, Eadweard Muybridge successfully photographed a horse named « Sallie Gardner » in fast motion. The recording used a series of 24 stereoscopic cameras. The cameras were arranged along a track parallel to the horse’s, and each camera shutter was controlled by a trip wire which was triggered by the horse’s hooves. They were 21 inches apart to cover the 20 feet taken by the horse stride, taking pictures at one thousandth of a second. In 1882, French scientist Étienne-Jules Marey invented a chronophotographic gun, which was capable of taking 12 consecutive frames a second, recording all the frames on the same picture.

4793607968_b0a9b99d72_oThe results of this work were first shown in public in 1893, using the viewing apparatus also designed by Dickson, and called the Kinetoscope. This was contained within a large box, and only permitted the images to be viewed by one person at a time looking into it through a peephole. It was not a commercial success in this form, and left the way free for Charles Francis Jenkins and his projector, the Phantoscope, with the first showing before an audience in June 1894. Louis and Auguste Lumière perfected the Cinématographe, an apparatus that took, printed, and projected film. They gave their first show of projected pictures to an audience in Paris in December 1895.

Film technique

The first film cameras were fastened directly to the head of a tripod or other support, with only the crudest kind of levelling devices provided, in the manner of the still-camera tripod heads of the period. The earliest film cameras were thus effectively fixed during the shot, and hence the first camera movements were the result of mounting a camera on a moving vehicle. The first known of these was a film shot by a Lumière cameraman from the back platform of a train leaving Jerusalem in 1896, and by 1898 there were a number of films shot from moving trains. Although listed under the general heading of « panoramas » in the sales catalogues of the time, those films shot straight forward from in front of a railway engine were usually specifically referred to as « phantom rides« .

The standard pattern for early film studios was provided by the studio which Georges Méliès had built in 1897. This had a glass roof and three glass walls constructed after the model of large studios for still photography, and it was fitted with thin cotton cloths that could be stretched below the roof to diffuse the direct ray of the sun on sunny days. The soft overall light without real shadows that this arrangement produced, and which also exists naturally on lightly overcast days, was to become the basis for film lighting in film studios for the next decade.

Effects

Unique among all the one minute long films made by the Edison company, which recorded parts of the acts of variety performers for their Kinetoscope viewing machines, was The Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots. This showed a person dressed as the queen placing her head on the execution block in front of a small group of bystanders in Elizabethan dress. The executioner brings his axe down, and the queen’s severed head drops onto the ground. This trick was worked by stopping the camera and replacing the actor with a dummy, then restarting the camera before the axe falls. The two pieces of film were then trimmed and cemented together so that the action appeared continuous when the film was shown.

This film was among those exported to Europe with the first Kinetoscope machines in 1895, and was seen by Georges Méliès, who was putting on magic shows in his Theatre Robert-Houdin in Paris at the time. He took up filmmaking in 1896, and after making imitations of other films from Edison, Lumière, and Robert Paul, he made Escamotage d’un dame chez Robert-Houdin (The Vanishing Lady). This film shows a woman being made to vanish by using the same stop motion technique as the earlier Edison film. After this, Georges Méliès made many single shot films using this trick over the next couple of years.

Mobile Gaming

Mobile Game

mobile game is a video game played on a feature phone, smartphone, PDA, tablet computer, portable media player or calculator. This does not include games played on dedicated handheld video game systems such as Nintendo 3DS or PlayStation Vita.

The first game on a mobile phone was a Tetris game on the Hagenuk MT-2000 device from 1994.

Three years later Nokia launched the very successful Snake on selected models in 1997. Snake and its variants has since become one of the most-played video games and is found on more than 350 million devices worldwide.

4816057968_8814b8495d_oMobile games are played using the technology present on the device itself. For networked games, there are various technologies in common use. Examples include text message (SMS), multimedia message (MMS) or GPS location identification. The first two-player game for mobile phones was a variant of the Snake game for the Nokia 6110, using the infrared port.

However, there are non networked applications, that simply use the device platform to run the game software. The games may be installed over the air, side loaded onto the handset with a cable, or may be embedded in the handheld devices by the OEM or by the mobile operator.

Mobile games are usually downloaded via the mobile operator’s network, but in some cases are also loaded in the mobile handsets when purchased, via infrared connection, Bluetooth, or memory card.

History

Towards the end of the 20th century mobile phones began to modernize. With the introduction of the « candy bar » cell phone mobile phones’ capabilities significantly improved. With these technological advances mobile phone games were becoming increasingly sophisticated.

Older cell phone games were not as expansive or popular as games for consoles since the hardware for the early mobile phone was not suited for high-color screening or sounds beyond differently pitched beeps. These games were also usually animated with shaded squares (e.g. Snake) due to their limited graphical quality. Unlike today’s cell phone games, which usually have to be purchased, these games came pre-installed and could not be copied or removed.

With the advent of the camera phone cell phones became more common. The storage and graphic capabilities of these phones were better than the older candy bar style phone which meant higher quality games could be produced. This also meant that companies could now make a profit off of the games because of their superior quality. Some early companies utilized the camera phone technology for mobile games such as Namco and Panasonic. In 2003 Namco released a fighting game that used the cell phone’s camera to create a character based on the player’s profile and determined the character’s speed and power based on the image taken; the character could then be sent to another friend’s mobile phone to battle. That same year Panasonic released a virtual pet game in which the pet is fed by photos of foods taken with the camera phone.

In the early 2000s, mobile games gained popularity in Japan’s mobile phone culture, years before the United States or Europe. By 2003, a wide variety of mobile games were available on Japanese phones, ranging from puzzle games and virtual pet titles that utilized camera phone and fingerprint scanner technologies to 3D games with exceptionally high quality graphics. Older arcade-style games became particularly popular on mobile phones, which were an ideal platform for arcade-style games designed for shorter play sessions. Namco began to introduce mobile gaming culture to Europe in 2003.

Nokia tried to create its own mobile gaming platform with the N-Gage in 2003 but this effort failed mainly because, at the time, the convergence of a cell phone and a handheld gaming platform did not mix. Many users complained of having to talk on the phone ‘taco-style’ by tilting it sideways in order to speak and hear. There were hardware issues as well, and though some quality games came out, support for the platform was anemic.

Today, cell phone games have come a very long way. Their graphics are about the same as you would expect on a 4th or 5th generation game console (which may not seem like a very big improvement yet is considered one because the game is being played on a cell phone). Cell phone games now tend to take up a large amount of memory on cell phones. Still, certain games such as « Tetris » and « Solitaire » are somewhat popular cell phone games.

After the integration of 3D APIs into mobile platforms, the mobile gaming world started to launch its own brand games. Real Soccer, Assault Team 3D, Crash Arena 3D, Edge,Labyrinth and Tournament Arena Soccer 3D were the first 3D games who became the sectoral well-known brands. After the huge success of Tournament Arena Soccer 3D byMobilenter with getting over 35 millions of downloads in only 1 week before World Cup 2010, the 3D game development became the primary area of mobile game development and mobile gaming became one of the most important gaming platforms.

Androidify Game

Android Gaming

Android is a Linux-based operating system designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later purchased in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. The first Android-powered phone was sold in October 2008.

Shaun demos to StanAndroid is open source and Google releases the code under the Apache License. This open source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications (« apps ») that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in a customized version of the Java programming language. In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Android’s primary app store, was 25 billion.

These factors have allowed Android to become the world’s most widely used smartphone platform, overtaking Symbian in the fourth quarter of 2010, and the software of choice for technology companies who require a low-cost, customizable, lightweight operating system for high tech devices without developing one from scratch. As a result, despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it has seen additional applications on televisions, games consoles and other electronics. Android’s open nature has further encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems.

Android had a worldwide smartphone market share of 75% during the third quarter of 2012, with 500 million devices activated in total and 1.3 million activations per day.The operating system’s success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called « smartphone wars » between technology companies.

An Epic Movie

Filmmaking

Filmmaking (often referred to in an academic context as film production) is the process of making a film. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through scriptwriting, casting, shooting, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete.

In this stage, the project’s producer selects a story, which may come from a book, play, another film, a true story, original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure. Then, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, and characters. This usually has little dialogue and stage direction, but often contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment once a synopsis is produced.

6005561452_04a3e4e0c9_oNext, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months. The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, clarity, structure, characters, dialogue, and overall style. However, producers often skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors, studios, and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the likely market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed business approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, and potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account.

The producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, and present it to potential financiers. If the pitch is successful, the film receives a « green light », meaning someone offers financial backing: typically a major film studio, film council, or independent investor. The parties involved negotiate a deal and sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a clearly defined marketing strategy and target audience.

Photocopier Orchestra

Orchestra

An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble that contains sections of string, brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ορχήστρα, the name for the area in front of an ancient Greek stage reserved for the Greek chorus. The orchestra grew by accretion throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, but changed very little in composition during the course of the 20th century.

3721453809_f4b056913f_oA smaller-sized orchestra for this time period (of about fifty musicians or fewer) is called a chamber orchestra. A full-size orchestra (about 100 musicians) may sometimes be called a « symphony orchestra » or « philharmonic orchestra« ; these modifiers do not necessarily indicate any strict difference in either the instrumental constitution or role of the orchestra, but can be useful to distinguish different ensembles based in the same city (for instance, the London Symphony Orchestra and theLondon Philharmonic Orchestra). A symphony orchestra will usually have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. A leading chamber orchestra might employ as many as fifty musicians; some are much smaller than that. Orchestras can also be found in schools. The term concert orchestra may sometimes be used (e.g., BBC Concert Orchestra; RTÉ Concert Orchestra)—no distinction is made on size of orchestra by use of this term, although their use is generally distinguished as for live concert. As such they are commonly chamber orchestras.

The typical symphony orchestra consists of four proportionate groups of similar musical instruments called the woodwinds,brass, percussion, and strings. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments. The orchestra, depending on the size, contains almost all of the standard instruments in each group. In the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has been expanded over time, often agreed to have been standardized by the classical period and Beethoven’s influence on the classical model.

Beethoven’s influence

The so-called « standard complement » of double winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is generally attributed to the forces called for by Ludwig van Beethoven. The exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, and Piano Concerto No. 4, which each specify a single flute. The composer’s instrumentation almost always included paired flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns and trumpets. Beethoven carefully calculated the expansion of this particular timbral « palette » in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, and 9 for an innovative effect. The third horn in the « Eroica » Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but also the effect of « choral » brass in the Trio. Piccolo, contrabassoon, and trombones add to the triumphal finale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver storm and sunshine in the Sixth. The Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the « Eroica » (four horns has since become standard); Beethoven’s use of piccolo, contrabassoon, trombones, and untuned percussion—plus chorus and vocal soloists—in his finale, are his earliest suggestion that the timbral boundaries of « symphony » might be expanded for good. But for several decades after his departure, symphonic instrumentation was faithful to Beethoven’s well-established model, with few exceptions.

Hiphop Dancers

Epic Dancing

Hip-hop dance refers to street dance styles primarily performed to hip-hop music or that have evolved as part of hip-hop culture. It includes a wide range of styles primarily breaking, locking, and popping which were created in the 1970s and made popular by dance crews in the United States. The television show Soul Train and the 1980s films Breakin’, Beat Street, and Wild Style showcased these crews and dance styles in their early stages; therefore, giving hip-hop mainstream exposure. The dance industry responded with a commercial, studio-based version of hip-hop—sometimes called new style—and a hip-hop influenced style of jazz dance called jazz-funk. Classically trained dancers developed these studio styles in order to create choreography from the hip-hop dances that were performed on the street. Because of this development, hip-hop dance is practiced in both dance studios and outdoor spaces.

The commercialization of hip-hop dance continued into the 1990s and 2000s with the production of several other television shows and 5514756479_cd8ff7b890_omovies such as The Grind, Planet B-Boy, Rize, StreetDance 3D, America’s Best Dance Crew, Saigon Electric, the Step Up film series, and The LXD, a web series. Though the dance is established in entertainment, including mild representation in theater, it maintains a strong presence in urban neighborhoods which has led to the creation of street dance derivatives turfing, krumping, and jerkin’

1980s films, television shows, and the Internet have contributed to introducing hip-hop dance outside of the United States. Since being exposed, educational opportunities and dance competitions have helped to maintain its presence abroad. Europe host several international hip-hop competitions such as the UK B-Boy Championships, Juste Debout, and EuroBattle. Australia host a team-based competition called World Supremacy Battlegrounds and Japan host a two-on-two competition called World Dance Colosseum.

What distinguishes hip-hop dance from other forms of dance is that it is often freestyle (improvisational) in nature and hip-hop dance crews often engage in freestyle dance competitions—colloquially referred to as battles. Crews, freestyling, and battles are identifiers of this style. Hip-hop dance can be a form of entertainment or a hobby. It can also be a way to stay active in competitive dance and a way to make a living by dancing professionally.

Organic Fruit Farm

Fair Trade Fruit

Organic foods are foods that are produced using methods of organic farming — that do not involve modern synthetic inputs such as synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Organic foods are also not processed using irradiation, industrial solvents, or chemical food additives. The organic farming movement arose in the 1940s in response to the industrialization of agriculture known as the Green Revolution. Organic food production is a heavily regulated industry, distinct from private gardening. Currently, the European Union, the United States, Canada, Japan and many other countries require producers to obtain special certification in order to market food as organic within their borders. In the context of these regulations, organic food is food produced in a way that complies with organic standards set by national governments and international organizations.

5253950673_b4ac00f276_oEvidence on substantial differences between organic food and conventional food is insufficient to make claims that organic food is safer or more healthy than conventional food.With respect to taste, the evidence is also insufficient to make scientific claims that organic food tastes better. Many supporters of the organic foods movement believe that pesticides, herbicides and artificial additives found in non-organic food might be carcinogenic. The American Cancer Society (ACS) has said « whether organic foods carry a lower risk of cancer because they are less likely to be contaminated by compounds that might cause cancer is largely unknown » but « vegetables, fruits, and whole grains should form the central part of a person’s diet, regardless of whether they are grown conventionally or organically »

Ballet Camp

Dance Studio

A dance studio is a space in which dancers learn or rehearse. The term is typically used to describe a space that has either been built or equipped for the purpose.

A dance studio normally consists of a smooth floor covering or, if used for tap dancing, by a hardwood floor. In most cases the floor is sprung, meaning the construction of the floor provides a degree of flexibility to absorb the impact of intensive dance exercise, such as jumping. This is considered vital to promote good health and safety.

Other common features of a dance studio include a barre, which is fixed to the wall at approximately waist height and used as a means of support. As music is an integral part of dance, nearly all dance studios have a sound system for playing CD’s or cassett tapes, and a piano is still commonly used to accompany ballet and tap dance, especially in professional studios. In purpose-built dance studios, it is typical for at least one wall to be covered by floor to ceiling mirrors, which are used by dancers to see their body position and alignment.
In China, the term dance studio is also used to describe a place which is established to teach dance. Commonly referred to as dance schools in Europe, they are often based locally and offer classes to interested students who live nearby. Depending on the studio, a variety of dance styles may be offered, or only one.

5514756479_cd8ff7b890_oDance is a type of art that generally involves movement of the body, often rhythmic and to music. It is performed in many cultures as a form of emotional expression, social interaction, or exercise, in a spiritual or performance setting, and is sometimes used to express ideas or tell a story. Dance may also be regarded as a form of nonverbal communication between humans or other animals, as in bee dances and behaviour patterns such as a mating dances.

Definitions of what constitutes dance can depend on social and cultural norms and aesthetic, artistic and moral sensibilities. Definitions may range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to virtuoso techniques such as ballet. Martial arts kata are often compared to dances, and sports such as gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are generally thought to incorporate dance. In some cases, the motion of ordinarily inanimate objects may be described as dance (the leaves danced in the wind).

There are many styles and genres of dance. African dance is interpretative. Ballet, ballroom and tango are classical dance styles. Square dance and electric slide are forms of step dance, and breakdancing is a type of street dance. Dance can be participatory, social, or performed for an audience. It can also be ceremonial, competitive or erotic. Dance movements may be without significance in themselves, as in ballet or European folk dance, or have a gestural vocabulary or symbolic meaning as in some Asian dances.

Choreography is the art of creating dances. The person who creates (i.e., choreographs) a dance is known as the choreographer.

Fair Trade Coffee Co

Fair Trade Coffee Co

Fair trade coffee is coffee that is certified as having been produced and marketed to a stated set of standards. Many customers pay a higher price when buying coffee with the certification logo or brand in the belief that, by doing so, they are helping farmers in the Third World.

Fair trade coffee has become increasingly popular over the last ten years, and is now offered at a significant number of coffee retailers worldwide. In 2004, 24,222 tonnes (24,222,000 kg) of 7,050,000 tonnes (7.05×109 kg) produced worldwide were from Fair trade farmers; in 2005, 33,991 tonnes (33,991,000 kg) out of 6,685,000 tonnes (6.685×109 kg) were from Fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%

Different Fair trade schemes

No universally accepted definition of ‘fair trade’ exists. There are a large number of Fair trade and ethical labels having different marketing strategies and different standards and criteria, and these have evolved with the major changes in marketing strategies that have taken place over the last twenty years making the sector increasingly complex.

Most Fair trade is sold by those Fair trade organizations that believe it is necessary to market through supermarkets to get sufficient volume of trade to have any real impact on the Third World[2] The Fair trade labeling organizations having most of the market share and who sell through supermarkets refer to a definition developed by FINE, an informal association of four international Fair trade networks (Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International, World Fair Trade Organization (WFTO), Network of European Worldshops and European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The standards developed by Fairtrade International (Fairtrade Labelling Organization) are the most used.

Fair trade is a certification scheme

The biggest Fair trade certification scheme, used by Fairtrade and some others, notably Fair Trade USA, is run by Fairtrade International (Fairtrade Labelling Organization). Coffee packers in the rich countries pay Fairtrade a fee for the right to use the Fairtrade logo, which gives consumers an assurance that the coffee meets Fairtrade criteria, that it is produced by farmers who are members of a democratically run cooperative, that it is produced without child labour, that there are restrictions on the use of herbicides and pesticides, and that the final exporter is paid a minimum price and a price premium.

The coffee with this certification mark must be produced by farmers and cooperatives that meet these criteria, and be certified by a for-profit inspection organization, FLO-CERT. The fact that a cooperative is certified does not mean that it can sell all its output as Fairtrade certified. The cooperatives can, on average, sell only 37% of their output as Fairtrade certified, at an enhanced price, because of lack of demand, and so they sell the rest at normal world prices.

Organic Green Coffee

Fair Trade Coffee Co

Fair trade coffee is coffee that is certified as having been produced and marketed to a stated set of standards. Many customers pay a higher price when buying coffee with the certification logo or brand in the belief that, by doing so, they are helping farmers in the Third World.

Fair trade coffee has become increasingly popular over the last ten years, and is now offered at a significant number of coffee retailers worldwide. In 2004, 24,222 tonnes (24,222,000 kg) of 7,050,000 tonnes (7.05×109 kg) produced worldwide were from Fair trade farmers; in 2005, 33,991 tonnes (33,991,000 kg) out of 6,685,000 tonnes (6.685×109 kg) were from Fair trade, an increase from 0.34% to 0.51%

Different Fair trade schemes

No universally accepted definition of ‘fair trade’ exists. There are a large number of Fair trade and ethical labels having different marketing strategies and different standards and criteria, and these have evolved with the major changes in marketing strategies that have taken place over the last twenty years making the sector increasingly complex.

Most Fair trade is sold by those Fair trade organizations that believe it is necessary to market through supermarkets to get sufficient volume of trade to have any real impact on the Third World[2] The Fair trade labeling organizations having most of the market share and who sell through supermarkets refer to a definition developed by FINE, an informal association of four international Fair trade networks (Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International, World Fair Trade Organization (WFTO), Network of European Worldshops and European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). The standards developed by Fairtrade International (Fairtrade Labelling Organization) are the most used.

Fair trade is a certification scheme

The biggest Fair trade certification scheme, used by Fairtrade and some others, notably Fair Trade USA, is run by Fairtrade International (Fairtrade Labelling Organization). Coffee packers in the rich countries pay Fairtrade a fee for the right to use the Fairtrade logo, which gives consumers an assurance that the coffee meets Fairtrade criteria, that it is produced by farmers who are members of a democratically run cooperative, that it is produced without child labour, that there are restrictions on the use of herbicides and pesticides, and that the final exporter is paid a minimum price and a price premium.

The coffee with this certification mark must be produced by farmers and cooperatives that meet these criteria, and be certified by a for-profit inspection organization, FLO-CERT. The fact that a cooperative is certified does not mean that it can sell all its output as Fairtrade certified. The cooperatives can, on average, sell only 37% of their output as Fairtrade certified, at an enhanced price, because of lack of demand, and so they sell the rest at normal world prices.

Coffee Growers Union

A farmer (also called an agriculturer) is a person engaged in agriculture, raising living organisms for food or raw materials. The term usually applies to people who do some combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock. A farmer might own the farmed land or might work as a labourer on land owned by others, but in advanced economies, a farmer is usually a farm owner, while employees of the farm are farm workers, farmhands, etc.

Farming has been dated back as far as the Neolithic era. By the Bronze Age, the Sumerians had an agricluture specialized labour force by 5,000-4,000 B.C., and heavily depended on irrigation to grow crops. They relied on three person teams when harvesting in the spring.The Ancient Egypt farmers farmed and relied and irrigated their water from the Nile.

Animal husbandry, the practice of rearing animals specifically for farming purposes, has existed for thousands of years. Dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago. Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BCE in Asia. Swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BCE in the Middle East and China. The earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BCE.

More distinct terms are commonly used to denote farmers who raise specific domesticated animals. For example, those who raise grazing livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, are known as ranchers (U.S.), graziers (Australia & U.K.), or simply stockmen. Sheep, goat, and cattle farmers might also be referred to respectively as shepherds, goatherds, and cowherds. The term dairy farmer is applied to those engaged primarily in milk production, whether from cattle, goats, sheep, or other milk producing animals. A poultry farmer is one who concentrates on raising chickens, turkeys, ducks, or geese, for either meat, egg, or feather production, or commonly, all three. A person who raises a variety of vegetables for market may be called a truck farmer or market gardener. Dirt farmer is an American colloquial term for a practical farmer, or one who farms his own land.

In developed nations, a farmer (as a profession) is usually defined as someone with an ownership interest in crops or livestock, and who provides land or management in their production. Those who provide only labor are most often called farmhands. Alternatively, growers who manage farmland for an absentee landowner, sharing the harvest (or its profits) are known as sharecroppers or sharefarmers. In the context of agribusiness, a farmer is defined broadly, and thus many individuals not necessarily engaged in full-time farming can nonetheless legally qualify under agricultural policy for various subsidies, incentives, and tax deductions.

Ballet Beautiful

Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia. It has since become a widespread, highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary. It has been globally influential and has defined the foundational techniques used in many other dance genres. Ballet may also refer to a ballet dance work, which consists of the choreography and music for a ballet production. A well-known example of this is The Nutcracker, a two-act ballet that was originally choreographed by Marius Petipa and Lev Ivanov with a music score by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky.

Stylistic variations have emerged and evolved since the Italian Renaissance. Early variations are primarily associated with geographic origin. Examples of this are Russian ballet, French ballet, and Italian ballet. Later variations include contemporary ballet and neoclassical ballet. Perhaps the most widely known and performed ballet style is late Romantic ballet (or Ballet Blanc), which is a classical style that focuses on female dancers and features pointe work, flowing and precise acrobatic movements, and often presents the female dancers in traditional, short white French tutus.

Ballet dance works (ballets) are choreographed and performed by trained artists, and often performed with classical music accompaniment. Early ballets preceded the invention of the proscenium stage and were performed in large chambers with the audience seated on tiers or galleries on three sides of the dance floor. Modern ballets may include mime and acting, and are usually set to music (typically orchestral but occasionally vocal).

Ballet requires years of training to learn and master, and much practice to retain proficiency. It has been taught in ballet schools around the world, which have historically used their own cultures to evolve the art. Ballet is the foundation of many types of dance.

Chocolate Cakes

Cake is a form of bread or bread-like food. In its modern forms, it is typically a sweet baked dessert. In its oldest forms, cakes were normally fried breads or cheesecakes, and normally had a disk shape. Determining whether a given food should be classified as bread, cake, or pastry can be difficult.

Modern cake, especially layer cakes, normally contain a combination of flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents (such as yeast or baking powder). Flavorful ingredients like fruit purées, nuts, dried or candied fruit, or extracts are often added, and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients are possible. Cakes are often filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with buttercream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders or candied fruit.

Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions, particularly weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread-like, some rich and elaborate, and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; while at one time considerable labor went into cake making (particularly the whisking of egg foams), baking equipment and directions have been simplified so that even the most amateur cook may bake a cake.

Cakes are broadly divided into several categories, based primarily on ingredients and cooking techniques.
Yeast cakes are the oldest and are very similar to yeast breads. Such cakes are often very traditional in form, and include such pastries as babka and stollen.

Cheesecakes, despite their name, aren’t really cakes at all. Cheesecakes are in fact custard pies, with a filling made mostly of some form of cheese (often cream cheese, mascarpone, ricotta or the like), and have very little flour added, although a flour-based or graham cracker crust may be used. Cheesecakes are also very old, with evidence of honey-sweetened cakes dating back to ancient Greece.

Sponge cakes are thought to be the first of the non-yeast-based cakes and rely primarily on trapped air in a protein matrix (generally of beaten eggs) to provide leavening, sometimes with a bit of baking powder or other chemical leaven added as insurance. Such cakes include the Italian/Jewish pan di Spagna and the French Génoise. Highly decorated sponge cakes with lavish toppings are sometimes called gateau; the French word for cake.

The Muffin Factory

The Best Muffins!

A muffin (American-style muffin in the UK) is a type of semi-sweet cake or quick bread that is baked in portions appropriate for one person. They are similar to cupcakes, although they are usually less sweet and lack icing. Savory varieties, such as cornbread muffins or cheese muffins also exist.

The term also refers to a disk-shaped muffin bread, called an English muffin outside the United Kingdom. As American-style muffins are also available in Commonwealth countries, the term muffin can refer to either product, with the context usually making clear which is meant.

3273601445_aa04f0475e_oThere are many varieties such as low-fat and flavors of muffins made with a specific ingredient such as blueberries, chocolate chips, raspberry, cinnamon, pumpkin, date, nut, lemon, banana, orange, peach, strawberry, boysenberry, almond, and carrot, baked into the muffin. Muffins are often eaten for breakfast; alternatively, they may be served for tea or at other meals.

Recipes for muffins, in their yeast-free « American » form, are common in 19th century American cookbooks. Recipes for yeast-based muffins, which were sometimes called « common muffins » or « wheat muffins » in 19th century American cookbooks, can be found in much older cookbooks. In her Boston Cooking-School Cook Book, Fannie Farmer gave recipes for both types of muffins, both those that used yeast to raise the dough and those that used a quick bread method, using muffin rings to shape the English muffins. Farmer indicated that stove top « baking », as is done with yeast dough, was a useful method when baking in an oven was not practical.

The Bread Bar

Etymology

The word itself, Old English bread, is common in various forms to many Germanic languages, such as Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd, and Norwegian and Danish brød; it has been claimed to be derived from the root of brew. It may be connected with the root of break, for its early uses are confined to broken pieces or bits of bread, the Latin crustum, and it was not until the 12th century that it took the place—as the generic name for bread—of hlaf in Gothic: modern English loaf), which appears to be the oldest Teutonic name. Old High German hleib and modern German Laib derive from this Proto-Germanic word for « loaf », and it is coradical with Polish chleb, Russian хлеб (khleb), and borrowed into Finnish leipä and Estonian leib as well.
History

Main article: History of bread

Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods. Evidence from 30,000 years ago in Europe revealed starch residue on rocks used for pounding plants.

It is possible that during this time, starch extract from the roots of plants, such as cattails and ferns, was spread on a flat rock, placed over a fire and cooked into a primitive form of flatbread. Around 10,000 BC, with the dawn of the Neolithic age and the spread of agriculture, grains became the mainstay of making bread. Yeast spores are ubiquitous, including the surface of cereal grains, so any dough left to rest will become naturally leavened.

There were multiple sources of leavening available for early bread. Airborne yeasts could be harnessed by leaving uncooked dough exposed to air for some time before cooking. Pliny the Elder reported that the Gauls and Iberians used the foam skimmed from beer to produce « a lighter kind of bread than other peoples. » Parts of the ancient world that drank wine instead of beer used a paste composed of grape juice and flour that was allowed to begin fermenting, or wheat bran steeped in wine, as a source for yeast. The most common source of leavening was to retain a piece of dough from the previous day to use as a form of sourdough starter.

A major advance to the bread making process occurred in 1961 with the development of the Chorleywood bread process, which used the intense mechanical working of dough to dramatically reduce the fermentation period and the time taken to produce a loaf. The process, whose high-energy mixing allows for the use of lower protein grain, is now widely used around the world in large factories. As a result, bread can be produced very quickly and at low costs to the manufacturer and the consumer. However there has been some criticism of the effect on nutritional value.

Recently, domestic bread machines that automate the process of making bread have become popular.

Theater Acts

Acts and scenes

An act is a part of a play and is defined by elements such as rising action, climax and resolution. A scene is a part of an act defined with the changing of characters.

To be more specific, the elements that create the plot of a play or any story, and divide a play into acts include the exposition, which give information, setting up the rest of the story. Another is the inciting incident, which starts all of the action that will follow. Going along with the inciting incident, the major dramatic question is formed; this holds the rest of the play.

The majority of the play is made up of complications. These are the things that change the action. These complications lead up to the crisis, this is the turning point. Most of the time, at this point, the major dramatic question has been answered. Finally, there is the resolution. This is the end of the play where everything comes together and the situation has been resolved. This leaves the audience satisfied with the play as a whole. These more specific elements of plot in a play are the main things used to divide a play up in to acts and sometimes scenes.

The Roman theatre was the first to divide plays into a number of acts separated by intervals. Acts may be further divided into scenes; in classical theater each regrouping between entrances and exits of actors is a scene, while later use describes a change of setting.

Modern plays often have only one level of structure, which can be referred to as either scenes or acts at the whim of the writer; and some writers dispense with firm divisions entirely. Successive scenes are normally separated from each other in either time or place; but the division between acts is more to do with the overall dramatic structure of the piece. The end of an act often coincides with one or more characters making an important decision. A decision which has a profound impact on the story being told.

Many operettas and most musicals are divided into just two acts, so in practice the intermission is seen as dividing them, and the word « act » comes to be used for the two halves of a show whether or not the script divides it into acts.

Party Times

Birthday party

A birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person who is being honored. The tradition started in the mid-nineteenth century but didn’t become popular until the mid-twentieth century.[1]
Birthday parties are a feature of many cultures.

In Western cultures, birthday parties include a number of common rituals. The guests may be asked to bring a gift for the honored person. Party locations are often decorated with colorful decorations, such as balloons and streamers. A birthday cake is usually served with lit candles that are to be blown out after a « birthday wish » has been made. The person being honored will be given the first piece of cake. While the birthday cake is being brought to the table, the song « Happy Birthday to You » or some other dedicated birthday song is sung by the guests.

At parties for children, time is often taken for the « gift opening » wherein the individual whose birthday is celebrated opens each of the gifts brought. It is also common at children’s parties for the host to give parting gifts to the attendees in the form of « goodie bags ». Children and even adults sometimes wear party hats (colorful cone-shaped paper hats) at a birthday party.

Birthday parties are often larger and more extravagant if they celebrate someone who has reached what is regarded in the culture as a milestone age, such as transition from childhood to adulthood. Examples of traditional coming of age celebrations include the North American sweet sixteen party and the Latin American quinceañera.

Surprise party

A surprise party is a party that is not made known beforehand to the person in whose honor it is being held.
Birthday surprise parties are the most common kind of surprise party. At most such parties, the guests will arrive an hour or so before the honored person arrives. Often, a friend in on the surprise will lead the honored person to the location of the party without letting on anything.

The guests might even conceal themselves from view, and when the honored person enters the room, they leap from hiding and all shout, « Surprise! » For some surprise birthday parties, it is considered to be a good tactic to shock the honored person. Streamers, silly string, and balloons may be used for this purpose. Evidence of a party, such as decorations and balloons, are not made visible from the exterior of the home, so that the honored person will suspect nothing.

Dinner party

Hors d’oeuvres served with cocktails during « cocktail hour » at a dinner party
A dinner party is a social gathering at which people eat dinner together, usually in the host’s home. At the most formal dinner parties, the dinner is served on a dining table with place settings. Dinner parties are often preceded by a cocktail hour in a living room or bar, where guests drink cocktails while mingling and conversing. Wine is usually served throughout the meal, often with a different wine accompanying each course.

At less formal dinner parties, a buffet is provided. Guests choose food from the buffet and eat while standing up and conversing. Women guests may wear cocktail dresses; men may wear blazers.

At some informal dinner parties, the host may ask guests to bring food or beverages (a main dish, a side dish, a dessert, or appetizers). A party of this type is called a potluck or potluck dinner. In the United States, potlucks are very often held in churches and community centers.

That Drum Kit

A drum kit, drum set or trap set is a collection of drums and other percussion instruments set up to be played by a single player.

Percussion instruments can be divided into three main categories: idiophones which when played give out their own natural sound, membranophones, which depend for their sound on a membrane stretched over a resonator, and chordophones, involving struck strings. The traditional drum kit is a collection including both idiophones and membranophone. More recently it has also included electronic instruments, with both hybrid and entirely electronic kits now in common use.

More specifically, a standard modern kit (for a right-handed player), as used in popular music, taught in many music schools, and for which qualifications are available from Trinity College London[4] and similar institutions consists of:

  1. A snare drum, mounted on a specialized stand, placed between the player’s knees and played with drum sticks (which may include rutes or brushes).
  2. A bass drum, played by a pedal operated by the right foot.
  3. A hi-hat stand and cymbals, operated by the left foot and played with the sticks, particularly but not only the right hand stick.
  4. One or more tom-tom drums, played with the sticks.
  5. One or more cymbals, played with the sticks, particularly but not only the right hand stick.
  6. A drum kit is usually played seated on a drum stool or throne.

Most drummers extend their kits from this basic pattern, adding more drums, more cymbals, and many other instruments. In some styles of music particular extensions are normal, for example double bass drums in heavy metal music. On the other extreme but more rarely, some performers omit elements from even the basic setup, also dependent on the style of music and individual preferences.

Rocking Out

Rock music is a genre of popular music that originated as « rock and roll » in 1950s America and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States.

It has its roots in 1940s’ and 1950s’ rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music. Rock music also drew strongly on a number of other genres such as blues and folk, and incorporated influences from jazz, classical and other musical sources.

Musically, rock has centered around the electric guitar, usually as part of a rock group with bass guitar and drums. Typically, rock is song-based music usually with a 4/4 time signature utilizing a verse-chorus form, but the genre has become extremely diverse and common musical characteristics are difficult to define.

Like pop music, lyrics often stress romantic love but also address a wide variety of other themes that are frequently social or political in emphasis. The dominance of rock by white, male musicians has been seen as one of the key factors shaping the themes explored in rock music. Rock places a higher degree of emphasis on musicianship, live performance, and an ideology of authenticity than pop music.

By the late 1960s, referred to as the « golden age » or « classic rock » period, a number of distinct rock music sub-genres had emerged, including hybrids like blues rock, folk rock, country rock, and jazz-rock fusion, many of which contributed to the development of psychedelic rock influenced by the counter-cultural psychedelic scene. New genres that emerged from this scene included progressive rock, which extended the artistic elements; glam rock, which highlighted showmanship and visual style; and the diverse and enduring major sub-genre of heavy metal, which emphasized volume, power, and speed.

In the second half of the 1970s, punk rock both intensified and reacted against some of these trends to produce a raw, energetic form of music characterized by overt political and social critiques. Punk was an influence into the 1980s on the subsequent development of other sub-genres, including New Wave, post-punk and eventually the alternative rock movement. From the 1990s alternative rock began to dominate rock music and break through into the mainstream in the form of grunge, Britpop, and indie rock. Further fusion sub-genres have since emerged, including pop punk, rap rock, and rap metal, as well as conscious attempts to revisit rock’s history, including the garage rock/post-punk and synthpop revivals at the beginning of the new millennium.

Rock music has also embodied and served as the vehicle for cultural and social movements, leading to major sub-cultures including mods and rockers in the UK and the hippie counterculture that spread out from San Francisco in the US in the 1960s. Similarly, 1970s punk culture spawned the visually distinctive goth and emo subcultures. Inheriting the folk tradition of the protest song, rock music has been associated with political activism as well as changes in social attitudes to race, sex and drug use, and is often seen as an expression of youth revolt against adult consumerism and conformity.

Jazz Out Loud

Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in black communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. Its African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, polyrhythms, syncopation, and the swung note.

From its early development until the present day, jazz has also incorporated elements from American popular music.

As the music has developed and spread around the world it has drawn on many different national, regional, and local musical cultures giving rise, since its early 20th century American beginnings, to many distinctive styles: New Orleans jazz dating from the early 1910s; big band swing, Kansas City jazz, and Gypsy jazz from the 1930s and 1940s; bebop from the mid-1940s; and on down through West Coast jazz, cool jazz, avant-garde jazz, Afro-Cuban jazz, modal jazz, free jazz, Latin jazz in various forms, soul jazz, jazz fusion, and jazz rock, smooth jazz, jazz-funk, punk jazz, acid jazz, ethno jazz, jazz rap, cyber jazz, Indo jazz, M-Base, nu jazz, and other ways of playing the music.

In a 1988 interview, trombonist J. J. Johnson said, « Jazz is restless. It won’t stay put and it never will ».

Jazz spans a range of music from ragtime to the present day — a period of over 100 years — and has proved to be very difficult to define. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions — using the point of view of European music history or African music for example — but critic Joachim Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader. Berendt defines jazz as a « form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of blacks with European music » and argues that it differs from European music in that jazz: has a « special relationship to time, defined as ‘swing' »; involves « a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role »; and contains a « sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician ».

Double bassist Reggie Workman, saxophone player Pharaoh Sanders, and drummer Idris Muhammad performing in 1978
A broader definition that encompasses all of the radically different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: he states that it is music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an ‘individual voice’, and being open to different musical possibilities. An overview of the discussion on definitions is provided by Krin Gabbard, who argues that « jazz is a construct » that, while artificial, still is useful to designate « a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition ».

In contrast to the efforts of commentators and enthusiasts of certain types of jazz, who have argued for narrower definitions that exclude other types, the musicians themselves are often reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington summed up this perspective by saying, « It’s all music ».

Nutty Butter

Peanuts are native to the tropics of the Americas and were mashed to become a pasty substance by the Aztec Native Americans hundreds of years ago.

A number of peanut paste products have been used over the centuries, and the distinction between peanut paste and peanut butter is not always clear in ordinary use. Early forms of peanut butter, like the Aztecs’ version, were nothing but a paste made from roasted peanuts. Modern processing machines allow for very smooth products to be made, which often include vegetable oils to aid in its spreadability.

Evidence of peanut butter as it is known today comes from U.S. Patent 306,727, issued in 1884 to Marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec, Canada, for the finished product of the process of milling roasted peanuts between heated surfaces until the peanuts entered « a fluid or semi-fluid state. » As the peanut product cooled, it set into what Edson explained as being « a consistency like that of butter, lard, or ointment ». Edson’s patent is based on the preparation of a peanut paste as an intermediate to the production the modern product we know as peanut butter; it does show the initial steps necessary for the production of peanut butter.[2] George Washington Carver is often falsely credited with inventing peanut butter and is nearly synonymous with its history in the United States.

Dr. John Harvey Kellogg patented a « Process of Preparing Nut Meal » in 1895 and used peanuts. Kellogg served peanut butter to the patients at his Battle Creek Sanitarium.

Dr. Ambrose Straub, a physician in St. Louis, Missouri, pursued a method for providing toothless elderly with protein in the 1890s. His peanut-butter-making machine was patented in 1903.

January 24 is National Peanut Butter Day in the United States.

Family Farm

A family farm is a farm owned and operated by a family, and often passed down from generation to generation. It is the basic unit of the mostly agricultural economy of much of human history and continues to be so in developing nations. Alternatives to family farms include those run by agribusiness, colloquially known as factory farms, or by collective farming.

United States legal definition

As defined by USDA regulations to farm loan programs (e.g. those administered by the Farm Service Agency), a family farm is a farm that produces agricultural commodities for sale in such quantities so as to be recognized in the community as a farm and not a rural residence;
produces enough income (including off-farm employment) to pay family and farm operating expenses, pay debts, and maintain the property;
is managed by the operator;

has a substantial amount of labor provided by the operator and the operator’s family; and
may use seasonal labor during peak periods and a reasonable amount of full-time hired labor.
(For exact language, see 7 U.S.C. 1941.4,1943.4).

Perceptions of the family farm

In developed countries the family farm is viewed sentimentally, as a lifestyle to be preserved for tradition’s sake, or as a birthright. It is in these nations very often a political rallying cry against change in agricultural policy, most commonly in France, Japan, and the United States, where rural lifestyles are often regarded as desirable. In these countries, strange bedfellows can often be found arguing for similar measures despite otherwise vast differences in political ideology. For example, Patrick Buchanan and Ralph Nader, both candidates for the office of President of the United States, held rural rallies together and spoke for measures to preserve the so-called family farm. On other economic matters they were seen as generally opposed, but found common ground on this one.

The social roles of family farms are much changed today. Until recently, staying in line with traditional and conservative sociology, the heads of the household were usually the oldest man followed closely by his oldest sons. The wife generally took care of the housework, child rearing, and financial matters pertaining to the farm. However, agricultural activities have taken on many forms and change over time. Agronomy, horticulture, aquaculture, silviculture, and apiculture, along with traditional plants and animals, all make up aspects of today’s family farm. Farm wives often need to find work away from the farm to supplement farm income and children sometimes have no interest in farming as their chosen field of work.

Bolder promoters argue that as agriculture has become more efficient with the application of modern management and new technologies in each generation, the idealized classic family farm is now simply obsolete, or more often, unable to compete without the economies of scale available to larger and more modern farms. Advocates argue that family farms in all nations need to be protected, as the basis of rural society and social stability.

Book Club

A book discussion club is a group of people who meet to discuss a book or books that they have read and express their opinions, likes, dislikes, etc. It is more often called simply a book club, a term that is also used to describe a book sales club, which can cause confusion. Other frequently used terms to describe a book discussion club include reading group, book group, and book discussion group. Book discussion clubs may meet in private homes, libraries, bookstores, online forums, pubs, and in cafes or restaurants over meals or drinks.

A practice also associated with book discussion, common reading program or common read, involves institutions encouraging their members to discuss select books in group settings; common reading programs are largely associated with educational institutions encouraging their students to hold book discussion meetings.

A single-title club is one in which people discuss a particular title that every person in the group has read at the same time, often with each member buying a personal copy. Clearly, the club must somehow decide ahead of time what that title will be. Some groups may decide to usually choose new release titles, whilst others may choose older ones, or a mixture of the two. If it is a book discussion club that meets at a library then each member may borrow a copy of the book from the library over a given timeframe in order for a later discussion.

There may be a few problems with these clubs, Some members may regard them as opportunities to meet people for social contact and general conversation, partially veering off onto a wide variety of non-literary topics, while others wish to engage in serious literary analysis focused on the book in question and related works, with little non-literary interaction. Additionally, some members may suggest a book not because they are interested in it from a literary point-of-view but because they think it will offer them an opportunity to make points of personal interest to them or fit an external agenda. Also, different expectations and education/skill levels may lead to conflicts and disappointments in clubs of this kind.

Millennium Theater

Theatre (also theater in American English) is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place. The performers may communicate this experience to the audience through combinations of gesture, speech, song, music or dance. Elements of design and stagecraft are used to enhance the physicality, presence and immediacy of the experience. The specific place of the performance is also named by the word « theatre » as derived from the Ancient Greek θέατρον (théatron, “a place for viewing”) and θεάομαι (theáomai, “to see », « to watch », « to observe”).

Modern Western theatre derives in large measure from ancient Greek drama, from which it borrows technical terminology, classification into genres, and many of its themes, stock characters, and plot elements. Theatre scholar Patrice Pavis defines theatricality, theatrical language, stage writing, and the specificity of theatre as synonymous expressions that differentiate theatre from the other performing arts, literature, and the arts in general.

Theatre today includes performances of plays and musicals. Although it can be defined broadly to include opera and ballet, those art forms are outside the scope of this article.

Work Shop

Beginning with the Industrial Revolution era, a workshop may be a room or building which provides both the area and tools (or machinery) that may be required for the manufacture or repair of manufactured goods. Workshops were the only places of production until the advent of industrialisation and the development of larger factories.

A machine is a tool that consists of one or more parts, and uses energy to achieve a particular goal. Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are frequently motorized. Historically, a powered tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine; however, the advent of electronics technology has led to the development of powered tools without moving parts that are considered machines.

A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force, but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles, electronic systems, molecular machines, computers, television, and radio.

The word machine derives from the Latin word machina, which in turn derives from the Greek (Doric μαχανά makhana, Ionic μηχανή mekhane « contrivance, machine, engine », a derivation from μῆχος mekhos « means, expedient, remedy ».

A wider meaning of « fabric, structure » is found in classical Latin, but not in Greek usage. This meaning is found in late medieval French, and is adopted from the French into English in the mid-16th century. In the 17th century, the word could also mean a scheme or plot, a meaning now expressed by the derived machination. The modern meaning develops out of specialized application of the term to stage engines used in theater and to military siege engines, both in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The OED traces the formal, modern meaning to John Harris’ Lexicon Technicum (1704), which has:

Machine, or Engine, in Mechanicks, is whatsoever hath Force sufficient either to raise or stop the Motion of a Body… Simple Machines are commonly reckoned to be Six in Number, viz. the Ballance, Leaver, Pulley, Wheel, Wedge, and Screw… Compound Machines, or Engines, are innumerable.

The word engine used as a (near-)synonym both by Harris and in later language derives ultimately (via Old French) from Latin ingenium « ingenuity, an invention ».

Tool Shed

A shed is typically a simple, single-storey structure in a back garden or on an allotment that is used for storage, hobbies, or as a workshop.

Sheds vary considerably in the complexity of their construction and their size, from small open-sided tin-roofed structures to large wood-framed sheds with shingled roofs, windows, and electrical outlets. Sheds used on farms or in industry can be large structures.

Small domestic sheds

The simplest and least-expensive sheds are available in kit form. Both shed kits and « do-it-yourself » plans are available for wooden and plastic sheds. Sheds are used to store home and garden tools and equipment such as push lawn mowers, lawn tractors, and gardening supplies. In addition, sheds can be used to store items that are not suitable for indoor storage, such as petrol (gasoline), pesticides, or herbicides.
For homes with small gardens or modest storage needs, there are several types of very small sheds. The sheds not only use less ground area but also have a low profile less likely to obstruct the view or clash with the landscaping.

These small sheds include corner sheds, which fit into a corner (3 ft tall × 3 wide × 2 deep, or 0.91×0.91×0.6 m), vertical sheds (5×3×4 ftConvert/3 – Invalid separator « disp=x » – try: disp=s, disp=or, disp=comma, disp=semi, or disp=b.1.5×0.91×1.2 m), horizontal sheds (3×5×4 ft or 0.91×1.5×1.2 m), and toolsheds. When a shed is used for tool storage, shelves and hooks are often used to maximize the storage space. Gambrel-style roofed sheds (sometimes called baby barns), which resemble a Dutch-style barn, have a high sloping roofline which increases storage space in the « loft » area. Some Gambrel-styles have no loft and offer the advantage of reduced overall height. Another style of small shed is the saltbox-style shed.

The Photographer

A photographer (from Greek φωτός (photos), meaning « light », and γράφω (graphos), meaning « written ») is a person who takes photographs. A professional photographer uses photography to earn money; amateur photographers take photographs for pleasure and to record an event, emotion, place, or person.

A professional photographer may be an employee, for example of a newspaper, or may contract to cover a particular event such as a wedding or graduation, or to illustrate an advertisement. Others, including paparazzi and fine art photographers, are freelancers, first making a picture and then offering it for sale or display. Some workers, such as policemen, estate agents, journalists and scientists, make photographs as part of other work. Photographers who produce moving rather than still pictures are often called cinematographers, videographers or camera operators, depending on the commercial context.

Photographers are also categorized based on the subjects they photograph. Some photographers explore subjects typical of paintings such as landscape, still life, and portraiture. Other photographers specialize in subjects unique to photography, including street photography, documentary photography, fashion photography, wedding photography, war photography, photojournalism, and commercial photography.

Further information: Photography and the law

The exclusive right of photographers to copy and use their products is protected by copyright. Countless industries purchase photographs for use in publications and on products. The photographs seen on magazine covers, in television advertising, on greeting cards or calendars, on websites, or on products and packages, have generally been purchased for this use, either directly from the photographer or through an agency that represents the photographer. A photographer uses a contract to sell the « license » or use of his or her photograph with exact controls regarding how often the photograph will be used, in what territory it will be used (for example U.S. or U.K. or other), and exactly for which products. This is usually referred to as usage fee and is used to distinguish from production fees (payment for the actual creation of a photograph or photographs). An additional contract and royalty would apply for each additional use of the photograph.

The time duration of the contract may be for one year or other duration.

The photographer usually charges a royalty as well as a one-time fee, depending on the terms of the contract. The contract may be for non-exclusive use of the photograph (meaning the photographer can sell the same photograph for more than one use during the same year) or for exclusive use of the photograph (i.e. only that company may use the photograph during the term). The contract can also stipulate that the photographer is entitled to audit the company for determination of royalty payments. Royalties vary depending on the industry buying the photograph and the use, for example, royalties for a photograph used on a poster or in television advertising may be higher than the royalty for use on a limited run of brochures. A royalty is also often based on the size the photo will be used in a magazine or book and cover photos usually command higher fees than photos used elsewhere in a book or magazine.

Photos taken by a photographer while working on assignment often belong to the company or publication unless stipulated otherwise by contract. Professional portrait and wedding photographers often stipulate by contract that they retain the copyright on wedding photos or portrait photos, so that only they can sell further prints of the photographs to the consumer, rather than the customer reproducing the photos by other means. If the customer wishes to be able to reproduce the photos themselves, they may discuss an alternative contract with the photographer in advance before the pictures are taken, in which a larger up front fee may be paid in exchange for reprint rights passing to the customer.

There are major companies who have maintained catalogues of stock photography and images for decades, such as Getty Images and others. Since the turn of the 21st century many online stock photography catalogues have appeared that invite photographers to sell their photos online easily and quickly, but often for very little money, without a royalty, and without control over the use of the photo, the market it will be used in, the products it will be used on, time duration, etc.

Urban Flavours

Humans were using spices in 50,000 BCE[citation needed]. The spice trade developed throughout South Asia and Middle East in around 2000 BCE with cinnamon and pepper, and in East Asia with herbs and pepper. The Egyptians used herbs for embalming and their demand for exotic herbs helped stimulate world trade. The word spice comes from the Old French word espice, which became epice, and which came from the Latin root spec, the noun referring to « appearance, sort, kind »: species has the same root. By 1000 BCE, medical systems based upon herbs could be found in China, Korea, and India. Early uses were connected with magic, medicine, religion, tradition, and preservation.

Archaeological excavations have uncovered clove burnt onto the floor of a kitchen, dated to 1700 BCE, at the Mesopotamian site of Terqa, in modern-day Syria. The ancient Indian epic Ramayana mentions cloves. The Romans had cloves in the 1st century CE, as Pliny the Elder wrote about them.

In the story of Genesis, Joseph was sold into slavery by his brothers to spice merchants. In the biblical poem Song of Solomon, the male speaker compares his beloved to many forms of spices. Generally, early Egyptian, Chinese, Indian, and Mesopotamian sources do not refer to known spices.

In South Asia, nutmeg, which originates from the Banda Islands in the Molukas, has a Sanskrit name.[clarification needed] Sanskrit is the ancient language of India, showing how old the usage of this spice is in this region. Historians believe that nutmeg was introduced to Europe in the 6th century BCE.

Indonesian merchants traveled around China, India, the Middle East, and the east coast of Africa. Arab merchants facilitated the routes through the Middle East and India. This resulted in the Egyptian port city of Alexandria being the main trading center for spices. The most important discovery prior to the European spice trade were the monsoon winds (40 CE). Sailing from Eastern spice growers to Western European consumers gradually replaced the land-locked spice routes once facilitated by the Middle East Arab caravans

Art Gallery Tampa

Types of galleries

The Gallery of Cornelis van der Geest, Willem van Haecht, 1628. A private picture gallery as an early precursor of the modern museum.

The term is used for both public galleries, which are non-profit or publicly owned museums that display selected collections of art. On the other hand private galleries refers to the commercial enterprises for the sale of art. However, both types of gallery may host traveling exhibits or temporary exhibitions including art borrowed from elsewhere.

In broad terms, in North American usage the word gallery alone often implies a private gallery, while a public gallery is more likely to be described as an art museum. In British and Commonwealth usage, the word gallery alone implies a public gallery, while a private or commercial gallery will be distinguished using those terms, and the word museum alone is generally understood to refer to institutions holding collections of historic, archaeological or scientific artefacts, rather than of fine art.

Galleries in museums

The rooms in museums where art is displayed for the public are often referred to as galleries as well, with a room dedicated to Ancient Egyptian art often being called the Egyptian Gallery, for example.

Contemporary art gallery

Main article: Contemporary art gallery
The term contemporary art gallery refers usually to a privately owned for-profit commercial gallery. These galleries are often found clustered together in large urban centers. Smaller cities are usually home to at least one gallery, but they may also be found in towns or villages, and remote areas where artists congregate, e.g. the Taos art colony and St Ives, Cornwall.

Contemporary art galleries are usually open to the general public without charge; however, some are semi-private. They usually profit by taking a portion of art sales; from 25% to 50% is typical. There are also many non-profit or collective galleries. Some galleries in cities like Tokyo charge the artists a flat rate per day, though this is considered distasteful in some international art markets. Galleries often hang solo shows. Curators often create group shows that say something about a certain theme, trend in art, or group of associated artists. Galleries sometimes choose to represent artists exclusively, giving them the opportunity to show regularly.

A gallery’s definition can also include the artist cooperative or artist-run space, which often (in North America and Western Europe) operates as a space with a more democratic mission and selection process. Such galleries typically have a board of directors and a volunteer or paid support staff that select and curate shows by committee, or some kind of similar process to choose art that typically lacks commercial ends.

Fresh Raspberries

Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the World.
Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to all belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants then classified as either R. idaeus subsp. idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, and the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus. Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more strongly upright, not needing staking.

The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is also occasionally cultivated in the United States, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams, preserves, and other products, all with that species’ distinctive, richer flavor.

Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, and have also been found in the wild in a few places (for example, in Vermont) where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. The botanical name Rubus × neglectus applies to these naturally occurring plants, as well as horticulturally produced plants having the same parentage. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare.

Both the red and the black raspberry species have albino-like pale-yellow natural or horticultural variants, resulting from presence of recessive genes that impede production of anthocyanin pigments.[citation needed] Fruits from such plants are called golden raspberries or yellow raspberries; despite their similar appearance, they retain the distinctive flavour of their respective species (red or black). Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens.

Red raspberries have also been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of which was the loganberry. Later notable hybrids include boysenberry (a multi-generation hybrid), and tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has also been achieved.

Fashion Free

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Early Western travelers, whether to Persia, Turkey, India, or China frequently remark on the absence of changes in fashion there, and observers from these other cultures comment on the unseemly pace of Western fashion, which many felt suggested an instability and lack of order in Western culture. The Japanese Shogun’s secretary boasted (not completely accurately) to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However in Ming China, for example, there is considerable evidence for rapidly changing fashions in Chinese clothing. Changes in costume often took place at times of economic or social change (such as in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate), but then a long period without major changes followed. This occurred in Moorish Spain from the 8th century, when the famous musician Ziryab introduced sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashion from his native Baghdad and his own inspiration to Córdoba in Al-Andalus. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the Middle East from the 11th century, following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East.

The beginnings of the habit in Europe of continual and increasingly rapid change in clothing styles can be fairly reliably dated to the middle of the 14th century, to which historians including James Laver and Fernand Braudel date the start of Western fashion in clothing. The most dramatic manifestation was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment, from calf-length to barely covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing on the chest to look bigger. This created the distinctive Western male outline of a tailored top worn over leggings or trousers.

The pace of change accelerated considerably in the following century, and women and men’s fashion, especially in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became equally complex and changing. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion in dating images with increasing confidence and precision, often within five years in the case of 15th century images. Initially changes in fashion led to a fragmentation of what had previously been very similar styles of dressing across the upper classes of Europe, and the development of distinctive national styles. These remained very different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again, mostly originating from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich usually led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and even peasants following trends at a distance sometimes uncomfortably close for the elites—a factor Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion.

Albrecht Dürer’s drawing contrasts a well turned out bourgeoise from Nuremberg (left) with her counterpart from Venice. The Venetian lady’s high chopines make her look taller.

Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten entirely different hats, and at this period national differences were at their most pronounced, as Albrecht Dürer recorded in his actual or composite contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century (illustration, right). The « Spanish style » of the end of the century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, and after a struggle in the mid 17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century.

Though colors and patterns of textiles changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman’s coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady’s dress was cut changed more slowly. Men’s fashions largely derived from military models, and changes in a European male silhouette are galvanized in theatres of European war, where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles: an example is the « Steinkirk » cravat or necktie.